The primary mission of Higher Educational Institutes is to produce knowledge (Research) and convey knowledge (Teaching). According to the legislation, for becoming an Academic Staff Member (Teaching & Research), the eligibility criteria should be met are: a) PhD Degree, b) academic teaching experience or working experience in research centers and b) original publications in scientific journals -either alone or in collaboration with others- promoting science in the respective cognitive field. The evaluation and judgement procedure for the election of promotion to tenure of Academic Staff Members is based on the overall teaching work of the candidates, their overall scientific and research activity focusing on their international contribution, most of which should have been conducted during the last five years before the submission of application for promotion to tenure or election. There is similar legislation also for evaluation and judgement in ranking grades of the National Health System (E.S.Y.) and other Organizations where physicians serve. The evaluation criteria for research work is an issue discussed worldwide. The assessment and infuencing factors are numerous, the jury's dilemmas complicated and significant. Two short 10min presentations will stimultate an open discussion aiming at reaching a consensus on the difficult issue of research evaluation.